Friday, 7 December 2018

Platelets grown from stem cells may be alternative to donated platelets


Researchers have developed a way to grow human platelets in the laboratory from stem cells derived from fat tissue. The achievement, reported today in the Journal Blood, suggests manufactured platelets could eventually reduce the reliance on donated platelets to help patients with cancer and other disorders.

Platelets are a component of blood that helps with clotting. Platelet transfusions can be life-saving for patients dealing with cancer or the effects of chemotherapy, infections, immune disorders, or platelet disorders.

Over 4.5 million platelet units of plasma are transfused every year worldwide, a need that currently must be met by human donors. Because donated platelets have a shelf life of less than a week, supplies often fall short of patient needs. In addition, donated platelets are subject to inherent safety risks due to infection from the donor and immune response in the recipient.
"By removing the donor from the equation, adipose-derived stem cells could be used to provide a ready supply of safe, tolerable platelets to meet an ever-changing demand," said Dr. Mastubara.
Researchers initially sought to derive platelets from two other types of stem cells including one known as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). They noticed adipose-derived cells, which were being used as a negative control in the experiments, had produced megakaryocyte- and platelet-sized cells that naturally expressed several genes important to producing platelets.

After refining methods for coaxing adipose-derived stem cells to produce platelets, the researchers conducted a series of tests to determine whether the manufactured platelets would function similarly to natural human platelets. They verified that the lab-grown platelets contained hallmark proteins found on the surface of natural platelets, as well as granules that are key to the clotting process. Blood clotting simulations and experiments using mice confirmed that the platelets behave like donated platelets, gathering together into clumps to form clots.
"Though more expensive to harvest compared to donor-derived platelets, this research demonstrates that platelets can be produced from adipose-derived cells by a rather simple method," said Matsubara. "Now that we have established an efficient manufacturing process to yield a large number of adipose-derived platelets, we next plan to perform preclinical studies using animal models to demonstrate efficacy and safety, followed by clinical trials in human patients."
We welcome researchers from different part of the to submit abstract on their latest research at our upcoming conference Cell Tissue Science 2019 which is mainly focuses on the complications the consequences of Stem CellRegenerative MedicineStem Cell TherapyCancer Cell Biology , Technical Advancements in cancer treatmentand many more.We welcome you to the our upcoming conference “ 12th World Congress on Cell & Tissue Science” .  You can submit your abstract on Session or Track : 09. Stem Cells and its Applications

Thursday, 6 December 2018

Citrate-based biomaterial fuels bone healing with less rejection


A material based on a natural product of bones and citrus fruit, called citrate, provides the extra energy that stem cells need to form new bone tissue, according to a team of Penn State bioengineers. Their new understanding of the mechanism that allows citrate to aid in bone regeneration will help the researchers develop slow-release, biodegradable, citrate-releasing scaffolds to act as bone-growth templates to speed up healing in the body.
"In our lab, we have been working with citrate for over a decade," said Jian Yang, Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Penn State. "We knew that in the human body, 90 percent of organic citrate is located in skeletal tissue. But no one had really tried to use citrate as a building block to make bone biomaterials. Our new paper tries to understand how citrate helps in bone healing and uses the understanding to guide the design of new biomimetic biomaterials for better bone repair."
Autografting -- taking bone from another part of the patient's body and grafting it to the wound -- is the method used most for bone regeneration in a hospital setting. This is not always a suitable method, especially in the case of large wounds or bone tissue removed during cancer treatment.

Synthetic biomaterials would be a welcome replacement and many labs are working on developing them. But current synthetic materials cause significant inflammation, and the bone healing rate is slow and healing quality is poor. The body encapsulates the implant with fibrotic tissues that keep the implant from integrating with surrounding bone. With Yang's material, the researchers do not see encapsulation, and chronic inflammation is minimal.

Chuying Ma, a doctoral student in Yang's lab, is lead author on the paper. Ma was given the problem of uncovering the poorly known mechanism underlying the body's use of citrate to regenerate bone. She found that the stem cell membrane has a transporter that is used to transport citrate into the cell to elevate the cellular energy level. When the bone stem cells differentiate to make new bone cells, they require more energy as support for active bone formation. The timing and dosage of citrate supply to stem cells are also critical. Yang and Ma coined the newly identified citrate effect on stem cell differentiation as "metabonegenic regulation" in the paper.

The team also identified a second factor involved in energy production, an amino acid called phosphoserine. With their new understanding of the mechanism for bone regrowth, they developed a biomaterial incorporating both citrate and phosphoserine and tested it on rat models.
"Using our new material, we see the early deposition of new bone at one month," Ma said. "This is much earlier than the biomaterials widely used in FDA-approved devices. In this study we tested two models, the femoral condyle bone and cranial bone defects."
In both animal models we see the new biomaterial is better than the commercial materials in inducing early bone formation and also promoting bone maturation, according to Ma. "To me, this is an important finding," said Yang, who is a faculty member in Penn State's Materials Research Institute and the Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences. "Citrate is now recognized as a central linker between stem cell metabolism and differentiation. We are uncovering the mechanism whereby citrate influences stem cell activity, not only in bone, but by implication extending to other types of cells and tissues. For instance, there is a high concentration of citrate in the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the brain. People can now use this understanding to start looking at citrate as a metabolism regulator to further regulate stem cells for other types of tissues and organs throughout the body."
We welcome researchers from different part of the to submit abstract on their latest research at our upcoming conference Cell Tissue Science 2019 which is mainly focuses on the complications the consequences of Stem CellRegenerative MedicineStem Cell TherapyCancer Cell Biology , Technical Advancements in cancer treatment and many more.We welcome you to the our upcoming conference “ 12th World Congress on Cell & Tissue Science” . 
You can submit your abstract on Session or Track : 10.Biomaterial and Bioengineering

Wednesday, 5 December 2018

Novel DNA nanoplatform delivers anticancer agents to multidrug-resistant tumors


A tailored DNA nanoplatform carries chemotherapeutic drugs and RNA interference toward multidrug-resistant tumors

One of the most successful techniques to combat multidrug resistance in cancer cells is the downregulation of those genes responsible for drug resistance. Chinese scientists have now developed a nanoplatform that selectively delivers small hairpin RNA transcription templates and chemotherapeutics into multidrug-resistant tumors. A deadly cocktail of gene-silencing elements and chemotherapeutic drugs effectively and selectively kills cells, they reported in the Journal Angewandte Chemie. The nanoplatform was assembled using established DNA origami techniques.

Multidrug-resistant cancer cells often remove potent drugs from the cell before they can become effective. As several genes for proteins that perform this job are known, scientists attempt to interfere on the gene expression level, which is possible with RNA interference (RNAi) techniques: small RNAi strands combine with messenger RNA and inhibit transcription. However, RNA transcription templates must be delivered and released into the cytoplasm of the cell, and at the same time, a potent drug must be present to kill the cell.

Baoquan Ding at the National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing, China, and his colleagues have now designed and built a platform that includes every item needed to intrude into tumor cells and release gene-silencing elements and chemotherapeutic drugs. They built the platform using the DNA origami technique, which allows the construction of nanosized DNA objects in multiple, and even very complicated shapes. In this case, the scientists constructed a relatively simple DNA origami structure, which self-assembled into a triangular nanoplatform with various sites to bind multiple functional units.

One of the key features of the platform was that it could include the hydrophobic potent drug doxorubicin (DOX), a cytostatic that is especially useful against malign tumors. Here, DOX did not bind to the nanoplatform by any covalent linkage, but was loaded onto it through intercalation (which is the way DOX works in the cell: it intercalates into DNA, inhibiting transcription). Instead, what was covalently linked to the platform was the multiple gene silencing and cell-targeting site, which consisted of two linear small hairpin RNA transcription templates for RNAi and gene therapy, a cell-specific unit for specific recognition and insertion by the tumor cell, and a disulfide linkage to be cleaved by cellular glutathione.
The authors examined their multipurpose nanoplatform with an in vitro assay (on cell cultures) and by administering it into mice containing multidrug-resistant tumors. They found both a high and selective delivery and release rate of DOX and RNA transcription templates, and a high and selective tumor-killing efficiency. In addition, the multifunctional platform itself was not harmful to mice; however, filled with drugs and delivery sites, it was effective and deadly to multidrug-resistant tumors, the authors reported.

This research demonstrates what is possible in cancer therapy. The scientists have designed a nanostructure that not only specifically targets cancer cells, thus reducing severe side effects in chemotherapy, but also carries a drug and everything needed to suppress resistance in the cell when releasing the drug. And the platform itself is modifiable; adaption to other delivery strategies and other therapeutic components is easily possible, according to the authors.
We welcome researchers from different part of the to submit abstract on their latest research at our upcoming conference Cell Tissue Science 2019 which is mainly focuses on the complications the consequences of Stem CellRegenerative MedicineStem Cell TherapyCancer Cell Biology , Technical Advancements in cancer treatment and many more.We welcome you to the our upcoming conference “ 12th World Congress on Cell & Tissue Science” . 
You can submit your abstract on Session or Track : 8.Advancement in Cancer Treatment

Tuesday, 4 December 2018

Healthy blood stem cells have as many DNA mutations as leukemic cells


Researchers from the Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology have shown that the number of mutations in healthy and leukemic blood stem cells does not differ. Rather the location of the mutations in the DNA is relevant. Using the mutation patterns in the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) the team was able to trace the developmental lineage tree of the cells.

Mutational load
"Blood stem cells divide about once every 40 weeks," says Van Boxtel, "and we saw that eleven mutations occur during one division." The older the test subject, the more mutations the researchers found because the mutations accumulate over the years. Yet, these people were fit as a fiddle.Nevertheless, mutations in blood stem cells may also lead to leukemia. "We thought that people with leukemia would have more mutations than healthy people," says Van Boxtel, "but this is not the case." The HSPCs of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) contain as many mutations as those from healthy people. The researchers published their results in the open access journal Cell Reports.
Developmental lineage tree
The researchers also describe how they were able to trace the developmental lineage tree of hematopoiesis using the mutation pattern of HSPCs. "If you study the pattern of mutations of a cancer cell, you can figure out which cell it comes from," explains Van Boxtel. "We have shown this for HSPCs now, but especially for solid tumors the origin of the cancer cell is very relevant for selecting the most effective treatment strategy." The technique has a lot of potential according to the authors. The next step for Van Boxtel and his team will be to study the origin of causative mutations in second cancers in survivors of pediatric cancer.
"So far, we assumed that new mutations occur as a result of intensive treatment during childhood and cause second cancers later in life. We can now test whether these mutations are indeed new or already existed and contributed to both incidences of cancer. This is relevant knowledge when making a treatment plan for children with cancer."
We welcome researchers from different part of the to submit abstract on their latest research at our upcoming conference Cell Tissue Science 2019 which is mainly focuses on the complications the consequences of Stem CellRegenerative MedicineStem Cell TherapyCancer Cell Biology , Technical Advancements in cancer treatment and many more.We welcome you to the our upcoming conference “ 12th World Congress on Cell & Tissue Science” . 
You can submit your abstract on Session or Track : 9.Stem Cells and its Applications

Monday, 3 December 2018

New blood test developed for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer


Research on a bacterial toxin first discovered in Adelaide has led to the development a new blood test for the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer - a disease which kills over 1000 Australian women and 150,000 globally each year.

The new blood test has the potential to dramatically improve early detection of the disease, although it will require further testing before it is available for clinicians.

A research team from the University of Adelaide and Griffith University have been studying the interactions between the toxin and an abnormal glycan (sugar) expressed on the surface of human cancer cells and released into the blood.

The team has now engineered a harmless portion of the toxin to enhance its specificity for the cancer glycan and used this to detect it in blood samples from women with ovarian cancer.

A paper published this month in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications has shown that the new test detected significant levels of the cancer glycan in blood samples from over 90% of women with stage 1 ovarian cancer and in 100% of samples from later stages of the disease, but not in any of the samples from healthy controls.
"Ovarian cancer is notoriously difficult to detect in its early stages, when there are more options for treatment and survival rates are better. Our new test is therefore a potential game changer," says Professor James Paton, Director of the University of Adelaide's Research Centre for Infectious Diseases.
Professor Michael Jennings, Deputy Director of the Institute for Glycomics at Griffith University, said: "Detection of this tumor marker may also play a role in a simple liquid biopsy to monitor disease stage and treatment."
The team is currently seeking scientific and commercial partners to further test the technology with larger numbers of patient samples and to adapt it for mass screening.
We welcome researchers from different part of the to submit abstract on their latest research at our upcoming conference Cell Tissue Science 2019 which is mainly focuses on the complications the consequences of Stem CellRegenerative MedicineStem Cell TherapyCancer Cell Biology , Technical Advancements in cancer treatment and many more.We welcome you to the our upcoming conference “ 12th World Congress on Cell & Tissue Science” . 
You can submit your abstract on Session or Track : 8.Advancement in Cancer Treatment

Wednesday, 28 November 2018

Bone marrow-derived fibroblasts shown to promote breast cancer growth

A new study has revealed that breast cancer cells recruit bone marrow-derived fibroblasts to enhance their growth. It is hoped that the discovery will lead to the development of new treatments that target the cells in and around the tumor.

Many breast cancers show the presence of abundant fibroblasts from neighboring breast tissue and other body tissues.

Fibroblasts are typically associated with malignant solid tumors and are among the cell types that are not actually cancerous but enhance tumor progression.

For instance, fibroblasts within breast tumors secrete growth factors that increase the rate of proliferation of the cancer cells.

They also induce inflammation and tumor neovascularization (the formation of new blood vessels growing deep into the tumor).

Neovascularization of the tumor is essential to provide an adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients for its growth.

In the current experiment breast cancers in mice were shown to contain a high percentage of fibroblasts recruited from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs).

These cells originate in the bone marrow and show significant differences from other fibroblasts present in cancerous growths.

One important difference is the absence of an important cytokine, a protein called PDGFRα. The lack of PDGFRα, therefore, acts as a marker for such cells.

Bone marrow-derived fibroblasts are strong promoters of tumor neovascularization (the formation of new blood vessels to supply a tumor) because they secrete high amounts of the protein clusterin.

The presence of such fibroblasts was associated with faster tumor growth rates due to improved vascularization, compared to other breast tumors which contain only fibroblasts derived from surrounding breast tissue.

The same team discovered that human breast cancers also showed the presence of fibroblasts which were negative for PDGFRα.

When the tumor concentration of PDGFRα was lower, the tumors were significantly more likely to be fatal.

In effect, therefore, breast tumors that recruit bone marrow-derived fibroblasts have taken a very important step towards more rapid growth and distant spread.

Gaining insight into how these cells work could well lead to the emergence of new treatments which selectively target not just the cancer cells but also the bone marrow-derived fibroblasts that support tumor progression.
Our study shows that the recruitment of bone marrow-derived fibroblasts is important for promoting tumor growth, likely by enhancing blood vessel formation. Understanding the function of these cancer-associated fibroblasts could form the basis of developing novel therapeutic manipulations that cotarget bone marrow-derived fibroblasts as well as the cancer cells themselves."
Neta Eretz, Lead Author
We welcome researchers from different part of the to submit abstract on their latest research at our upcoming conference Cell Tissue Science 2019 which is mainly focuses on the complications the consequences of Stem CellRegenerative MedicineStem Cell TherapyCancer Cell Biology , Technical Advancements in cancer treatment and many more.We welcome you to the our upcoming conference “ 12th World Congress on Cell & Tissue Science” . 
You can submit your abstract on Session or Track : 7.Cancer Cell Biology

Tuesday, 27 November 2018

New lung cancer guides aim to drive better outcomes and care

wo new, national guides that aim to drive better outcomes and care for all people affected by lung cancer were released by Cancer Australia. Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer in Australia with an estimated 25 people dying every day from the disease in 2018.
All lung cancer patients, regardless of where they live, should have the benefit of the best care and have the best possible experience. These resources distill the essential elements of what that care should be and how to deliver it,” Dr Helen Zorbas, CEO Cancer Australia
Separate resources have been designed for health professionals and consumers, which share the goal of achieving optimal patient outcomes.
Delivering best practice lung cancer care for health professionals contains evidence-based, best practice information, strategies, tools and resources to support clinicians in providing consistent, high quality care for people affected by lung cancer.
I encourage all those involved in lung cancer care in Australia to implement and use these guides as part of a national coordinated effort to improve lung cancer outcomes.” Dr Zorbas
The resources build on the Lung Cancer Framework: Principles for Best Practice Lung Cancer Care in Australia, which support the uptake and use of the Principles for best practice care: patient-centred care; timely access to evidence-based pathways of care; multi-disciplinary care; coordination, communication and continuity of care; and data-driven improvements in lung cancer care.

To empower patients to actively participate in their own care, Getting the best advice and care, a guide for those affected by lung cancer provides information about what the principles will mean to them and what they can do better engage with health care professionals and make informed evidence-based decisions.
Dr Zorbas said the guides articulate the clear benefits to patients of implementing each of the principles –from improving survival to reducing anxiety and depression.

Releasing these resources during Lung Cancer Awareness Month serves as a timely reminder that anyone experiencing symptoms such as a persistent cough lasting 3 weeks or more, coughing up blood, a chest infection that won’t go away, or a changed cough should visit a doctor.

Although lung cancer mostly occurs in people over 60 years, it can affect people of any age, regardless of whether they smoke. It is estimated that in 2018, 12,741 people will be diagnosed with lung cancer in Australia.

The development of Lung Cancer Framework: Principles for Best Practice Lung Cancer Care in Australia and these new resources by Cancer Australia was guided by systematic and exacting reviews of the highest quality evidence and incorporates learnings and experiences from people affected by lung cancer. A national demonstration project was undertaken, along with consultation with health professionals and consumers, supported by Cancer Australia’s Lung Cancer Advisory Group.
We welcome researchers from different part of the to submit abstract on their latest research at our upcoming conference Cell Tissue Science 2019 which is mainly focuses on the complications the consequences of Stem CellRegenerative MedicineStem Cell TherapyCancer Cell Biology , Technical Advancements in cancer treatment and many more.We welcome you to the our upcoming conference “ 12th World Congress on Cell & Tissue Science” . 
You can submit your abstract on Session or Track : 8.Advancement in Cancer Treatment

Platelets grown from stem cells may be alternative to donated platelets

Researchers have developed a way to grow human platelets in the laboratory from stem cells derived from fat tissue. The achievement, ...